A tooth is essentially made up of the outer hard layer of Enamel, which supports the inner layer called Dentine. At the core of the tooth surrounded by Dentine, is a space filled with a soft tissue known as the Dental Pulp, which consists of blood vessels and nerves originating from the end of the root of the tooth. The channel that the pulp passes through in the root is known as the root canal.
Infections of the pulp can develop subsequent to decay, deep restorations, cracks or trauma. Typical indications of pulp damage include pain, prolonged sensitivity to heat or cold, discolouration of the tooth and swelling and tenderness in the nearby gums, although sometimes, there may be no symptoms.